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Madinah City (Profile) Ali ibn Abi Talib
The Father of Tasawwuf
'Amir al Momineen' sayyidouna Ali Karam Allahu wajahu
Shrine of sayyidouna Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu (s) Najaf Ashraf, Iraq
FATHER OF TASAWWUF
BELOVED PROPHET & TASAWWUF
GNOSIS OF GOD
PRAYERS TO GOD
COMMUNION WITH GODDOCTRINE OF PREFERENCE
The above has been excerpted from the book "Hadrat Ali, r. a." by Prof. Masud-ul-Hasan. We gratefully acknowledge and thank Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Ltd., for permission to reproduce these excerpts.
LOVE OF THE AHL AL-BAYT by 'Raees al Muhaqiqeen' Shaykh al Islam w'al Muslimeen
HADRAT ALI | AHL AL-BAYT | THE FOUR CALIPHS
MUHARRAM | LOVE OF THE AHL AL-BAYT | HISTORY OF KARBALA
Father of Tasawwuf
'Amir al-Momineen' (Leader of the Faithful); Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, is acclaimed as the father of Sufism [tasawwuf]. Most Sufi orders claim their descent from Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu. According to 'Data Ganj Baksh'; UTHMAN 'ALI AL-HUJWIRI [d.469H] Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, the rank of Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu is very high in the lineage of Sufis. According to JUNAYD AL-BAGHDADI [d.298H] Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu is the Shaykh as regards to the principles and practices of tasawwuf.
The Beloved Prophet & Tasawwuf :
The roots of tasawwuf lie embedded in Islam itself. There are numerous passages in the Qur'an al-karim which are of a mystical character. The Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta''ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam himself displayed mystical inclinations and he very often retired to the cave known as Hirah for the purpose of devotions, meditation and contemplation. The The Beloved of Allah Salla Allahu ta''ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam was the recipient of two types of revelations, one embodied the Qur'an al-karim, and the other illuminated his heart. The former was meant for all, the latter for those selected few whose hearts could be illuminated with the Divine Light. The knowledge of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta''ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam was thus both book knowledge (Ilm-i-Safina) and heart knowledge (Ilm-e-Sina).
Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu received his heart knowledge from the Beloved Prophet Salla Allahu ta''ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam. It is related that after the Ascension, the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta''ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam awarded a mantle to Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu which led to the illumination of his heart.
Gnosis of God :
According to Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu the base of religion is the gnosis of God. He held:
"The height of gnosis is His confirmation. The height of confirmation is tawhid. The height of tawhid is the acknowledgement of the supremacy of God in all matters. He is beyond all attributes. No particular attribute can give an idea of His exact nature. He is not bound by anything; all things are bound by Him. He is Infinite, limitless, boundless, beyond time, beyond space, beyond imagination. Time does not affect Him. He existed when there was nothing. He will exist forever. His existence is not subject to the law of birth or death. He is manifest in everything, yet He is distinct from everything. He is not the cause of anything, yet everything is because of Him. He is unique and He has no partner. He is the Creator. He creates as well as destroys. All things are subject to His command. He orders something to be and it is."
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu enjoined the severance of the heart from all things save God. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was asked what was the purest thing that could be acquired, and he said,
"It is that which belongs to a heart made rich by God."
When Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was asked about gnosis, he said,
"I know God by God, and I know that which is not by God by the light of God."
When asked whether he had seen God, he said that verily he had seen God for he could not worship Him unless he knew Him.
Prayers to God
When Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu used to pray, his hair would stand on end. He would tremble and say,
"The hour has come to fulfill a trust which the heavens and the earth were unable to bear."
Abu Darda Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu an eminent Companion of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam said,
"None in this world has excelled Ali in prayer."
While praying, so great was the intensity of his emotions that he would fall into a swoon. It is related that on one occasion, Abu Darda Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu found Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu lying rigid on the prayer mat, and touching his cold body thought that Sayyadina Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu had breathed his last. When he broke this news to Hadrat Fatima Radi Allahu ta'ala anha, she said that Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu often became unconscious while praying. Abu Darda Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu wept profusely, and then sprinkled some water on Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu's face and he regained consciousness. Seeing tears in the eyes of Abu Darda Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu said:
"Why are you crying? You shed tears when you see me in this state. Imagine what will happen to me when the Angels dragged me into the presence of God, and I am forced to render an account of my deeds. They will blind me with fetters of iron, and present me before God, and those of my friends who will happen to be witnesses will be powerless to help me. They will lament my unhappy plight, but none save God will be able to help me on that day."
Communion with God
Very often, Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu would sob all night in his prayers to God, and God would reward him with a glimpse of Inner Vision. According to Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, the highest purpose of knowledge is the awakening of latent spiritual faculties whereby one is enabled to discover his true and inner self. It is to this inner self that God reveals Himself when the self disappears in the vision of the "All Absorbing Reality." Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu often observed that man could have the joy and wonder of communion with God if one abandoned pride, disciplined the flash, overcame lust and submitted to the Will of God. He exhorted people in his various sermons to not indulge in gross licentiousness which had characterized Arab society in the "Days of Ignorance." But should instead live in piety and simplicity as enjoined by Islam. Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu said,
"Man is a wave in the boundless Sea of God. As long as man's vision is clouded by ignorance and sensuality he will consider himself to be a separate entity, different from God. But when the veil between him and God is lifted, he will then know what he really is. The wave will then merge with the ocean."
Sayyadina Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held that enlightenment is needed so that one can first get to know himself. Only then would he get to know God. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held that to this end religious exercises must be practised. The Sufism for which Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu stood, derived its strength from the Shari'ah. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu preached that any form of knowledge which failed to show the Infinite Reality in man was useless, because it could not fill that vacuum in which the aching soul in every individual was so pathetically conscious. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu wanted men to be virtuous as virtues purify the soul, and it is only the purified soul that can be the recipient of spiritual enlightenment. This is the doctrine of Inner Light which was the enunciated by Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu as the core of Sufi thought. Accordingly, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu is acknowledged as the "father of Sufism" and the prince of saints.
Doctrine of preference
Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu also enunciated the doctrine of preference. He stood for and preferred the claims of others to his own claims. He gave an outstanding demonstration of this doctrine when he slept on the bed of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam on the night of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam's migration from Makkah, when the infidels were seeking to slay him. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu risked his life for the sake of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam, because of the preference that Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu gave to the life of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam as compared with his own life. After the death of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu considered that he was the most deserving person to be elected as the Caliph. Yet, when his claims were overlooked and other persons were elected as Caliphs, he offered them an allegiance in pursuance of the doctrine of preference. It was this spirit of preference that motivated Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu to plunge in the thick of battle to meet the challenge of the enemy regardless of his own personal safety. It is related that after the Ascension, when the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam gave Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu a mantle, he asked him how he would use the mantle. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu said that he would use it to cover the faults of others. The true Sufi way lies in covering the faults of others.
According to Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, fasting was not a mere formality or a ritual; it was an exercise for the purification of the soul. Because of his constant fasting, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu earned the epithets of "Qa'im-ul-Lait" (praying most of the night without sleep); and "Sa'im-ul-Nahar" (fasting mostly during the day). Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held that hunger sharpens the intelligence and improves both the mind and health. Hunger involves some affliction for the body, but it illumines the heart, purifies the soul, and leads the spirit to the presence of God. One who cultivates his spiritual nature by means of hunger in order to devote himself entirely to God and detach himself from worldly ties, is at a much higher level than the person who cultivates his body by means of gluttony and lust. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu acted on the advice of the Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam,
"Fast so that perchance your hearts may seek God in this world."
And indeed, because of his fasting and other spiritual exercises, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu did see God in this world. The Beloved Messenger of Allah Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa 'aalihi wa Sallam had enjoined,
"When you fast, let your ear, your eye, your tongue, your hand, and your every limb fast."
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu followed this advice to the letter as well in spirit. Through the discipline of fasting, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was able to subordinate the physical senses to spiritual requirements in such a way that they could respond only to what was pure and became dead to what was impure. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu thus led a purified life.
Sayyadina Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held:
"Of the most meritorious acts of a believer, and one of the most acceptable things to God is Zakat. It behoves everyone to give charity, because from amongst the acts of worship, this is the most pleasing to God."
In his sermons, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu exhorted the people in the following terms:
"O ye people, send a part of your wealth to God so that it may stand you in good stead in the next world. Do not leave your entire wealth here so that it will become a source of annoyance to you in the next world."
In the annals of Arabs, Hatim Tai enjoys fame for his munificence and generosity. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu outclassed Hatim in the matter of generosity.
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was born inside the Ka'bah. He had, therefore a strong emotional attachment for the Ka'bah. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu observed that the Ka'bah Shareef was located in a territory known for its stony wastes and wilderness and where no water was available. God had ordained the Muslims to bear the hardships involved in a journey through such an inhospitable land cheerfully so that those very privations might ultimately become a source of salvation. The pilgrimage is symbolic of the fact that whatever hardship one bears in the trials of life and endeavours to fulfill the will of God, he acquires goodness and righteousness by them. The darkest thing in the world is the beloved's house without the beloved. What is really important for a lover is the beloved and not the house of the beloved. According to Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu the spirit of pilgrimage did not lie in a bare visit to the Ka'bah, it lay in developing the inner vision whereby one could see God, the Lord of the Ka'bah.
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held that jihad is the gateway to Paradise. He said:
"God has opened this gate for His friends. It is the mantle of piety. It is the shield of faith. He who avoids it, God subjects him to disgrace."
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu held that jihad did not lie in merely taking up arms in the cause of God, it means incessant struggle against falsehood it all spheres of life. Jihad is the main pillar on which Islam rests.
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The first stage in the path of tasawwuf is repentance. Repentance is described as the awakening of the soul from the slumber of heedlessness so that the sinner becomes aware of his evil ways and feels contrition for past disobedience. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu repeatedly prayed for God's forgiveness. His typical prayer was:
"O God, forgive me my sins of which you are more aware than me. And if I commit these sins again, even then forgive me and whatever promises I have made with myself to follow Your commands that have not been fulfilled. I seek Your forbearance. If I have sought Your proximity with my tongue, but my heart has not kept pace with my tongue, then overlook my lapse. O God, forgive me for my futile talk, vain desires and lapses of tongue."
Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu admonished that while living in the world, one should not renounce the world, still he should not have an undue attachment for it because detachment from the world (Zuhd) is a means of attaining God. It is related that someone begged Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu to give him a precept. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu said:
"Do not let your wives and children be a cause of concern for you, for if they be the friends of God, He will look after His friends, and if they are the enemies of God, why should you take care of God's enemies?"
In the mystic way, the traveller will meet many trials and tribulations. God subjects His lovers to severe testing, and only he will pass such tests who is patient. Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was the personification of patience, and for this he acquired the epithet of "Job, the Second." In the battle of Uhud, Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu received as many as 61 wounds on his person so that his whole body looked like one massive wound to which the nurses were unable to dress. Although Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu was in mortal agony, he said: "May God Grant me the patience to bear this suffering. Is it not a favour of God that He gave me the courage to stand and fight, and not to leave the field?"
About the patience of Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu ta'ala anhu, Dr. Ata Mohyuddin writes as follows in his Ali, the Superman:
"Ali used to say that at no time in his life had he ever known peace and tranquillity. From the time of infancy when he was taken into the home of the Beloved Prophet, Ali felt the ferment of turbulence and turmoil. The Beloved Prophet was constantly persecuted by the Meccan pagans. And from adolescence onwards, Ali was constantly fighting in jihad, and after the death of the Beloved Prophet, he was embroiled against his wish, in the political intrigues of others. Even when elected Caliph, the implacable enemies of Islam arose and rebelled against him, yet he bore all these afflictions with patience, thanking God that he had acquitted himself well in the tests and trials to which the Almighty had thought fit to subject him."
Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah is the second holy city to Muslims after Makkah Al-Mukkaramah. It has also got many other names such as Taibah, Yathrib, the City of the Messenger, and Dar Al-Hijri (i.e. Home of Immigration). It is the city whose people supported Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) when he immigrated to it from Makkah. It comprises the Mosque of the Prophet, his grave, the Islamic University, King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran and many archaeological Islamic features. The first mosque of Islam is also located in Madinah and is known as Masjid Al Quba.
Madinah (Almadina Al-Munawara) the light city is the city of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and also his burial place. It was the first Islamic City to support the Prophet Muhammad, and it joined him in fighting decisive battles which were instrumental in the victory of Islam and its subsequent spread. This is the city of the "Ansaar" (Supporters) and their brothers the "Muhajireen" (Emigrants), who together formed the first Islamic army which entered Makkah in triumph eight years after the Prophet's "Hijrah" (Migration). It was a city which loved the Prophet, and which he in turn loved. On its soil he built his sacred mosque, and it was here that he was buried.
Madinah was also the city of the "Khulfai Rashiduun" (Orthodox Caliphs of Islam), who shouldered the responsibility of Jihad, or holy struggle, fighting against renegades and propagating Islam in the countries surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. It was the seat of the first Islamic state, and witnessed the Prophet's companions administering the affairs of the Moslem community, compiling the Holy Koran, and dispatching armies to Persia, Syria and Egypt.
To visit Madinah is not a Hajj or Umrah rite, but the unique merits of the Prophet's city, his Mosque and his sacred tomb attract every pilgrim to visit it. There is neither Ihram nor talbiyah for the visit to Madinah or the Prophet's Mosque.
The Prophet had great love for this city. He once said that "There is a cure for every disease in the dust of Madinah" (Al-Targhib).
The Prophet himself participated in the construction of this mosque, called it "My Mosque" and led prayers in it for years. He has also said that a prayer performed in the Prophet's Mosque is better than a thousand prayers in any other place except Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah. It was also reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) has also said: "The person who offers 40 prayers consecutively in my Mosque, without missing a prayer in between, will secure immunity from the fire of Hell and other torments and also from hypocrisy."
Madinah has 95 names, including Taibah, Tabah, Qubbat Al-Islam, Al-Mu'mina, Al-Mubarakah, Al-Mukhtarah, Dar Al-Abrar, Dar Al-Sunnah, Dar Al-Akhyar, Dar Al-Fateh, Dhat Al-Hirar, Dhat Al-Nakhl, Al-Barrah and Al-Jaberah.
Al Madinah Al Munawarah is located at Eastern Part of Al Hijaz Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on longitude (39 36 6) and Latitude (24 28 6).
Madinah is located in the north-western part of the Kingdom, to the east of the Red Sea, which lies only 250 km (155 miles) away from it. It is surrounded by a number of mountains: Al-Hujaj, or Pilgrims' Mountain to the West, Salaa to the north-west, Al-E'er or Caravan Mountain to the south and Uhad to the north Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh. For this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region. The city is 620 meters (2034 ft) above sea level. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks. Madinah lies at the meeting-point of longitude 39 36' east and latitude 24 28' north. It covers an area of about 50 square kilometers (19 square miles).
Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is a desert oasis surrounded with mountains and stony areas from all sides. It was mentioned in several references and sources. It was known as Yatrib in Writings of ancient Maeniand, this is obvious evidence that the population structure of this desert oasis is a combination of north Arabs and South Arabs, who settled there and built their civilization during the thousand years before Christ.
Geographical Features of Al Madinah
Natural conditions have donated Al Madinah several features that made the city more important, water supplies in Al Madinah are abundant, its land is fertile with high and abundant productivity, there are natural roads and paths that link Al Madinah with Najid Tuhamah and Al Hijaz, in addition to the old trade road between south, north and east which made the city a center of important trade markers.
Geographical environment of Al Madinah consists of basalt and indesite rocks or metamorphosed schisr or granite rocks, which are traversed by a group of valleys that fall from the high mountains. The geological history of the area, with respect to its history and structure is related to the same history of Al Hijaz ridge.
The land of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is fertile volcanic hill that inclines towards North direction. It is (597-639 Meters) above sea level. Al Madinah Al Munawwarah was a group of green oasis before the advancement of building; especially in the area form kaaba to the Eastern Stony area.
From the North: Uhod Mountain
From the South West: A group of Basaltic Stony areas
The area has a hot, continental climate. The climate is affected by the Mediterranean in the north and by the seasonal climate in the south. The temperature ranges between 36-45 degrees celsius during the summer months and between 15- 20 degrees Celsius during winter.
Little rain falls in this area with an average of only 94mm. When rain does fall it is generally in November and January.
There is low humidity most of the year, with an average of 22% that increases with rainfall to 35%. During summer the humidity rarely rises above 14%.
Southwesterly winds usually blow in the area. They are mostly hot and dry. The average speed of the wind is 5 - 8 knots per hour, which is considered to be quite strong.
The average temperature in summer is 30ْ C and from May to September it may reach 46ْ C.
The Lowest average temperature is in January, as it is 15ْ C.
Humidity in Al Madinah Al Munaearah is considered among areas with the least degrees of humidity, where the average humidity is 22 degrees that rises in winter.
Quantity of rain in Al Madinah varies from of the year to another, it usually ranges from 0.70 MM to 4.0 MM Rains fall in winter, and in spring there are scattered showers.
Westerly from March to July and Easterly from November to February.
Velocity of the winds range from 5 to 8 knots through the year.
Topography of Al Madinah
The topographic characteristics of the city, which are represented in four main parts:
Which surrounds the Oasis from all directions the most important are Uhod Mountain and Aseer Mountain.
Which link the mountains and the Oasis, Waqim stony area at east direction, Al Bourah stony area at west and Shouran stony area at south.
A group of valleys fall from the mountains and traverse the oasis. They run towards the north east until they meet at Zugabah. The most important of which are Al Ageeg Canal, Batthan, Abu Jeedah (Zanotah), Muzeneb and Mahzouz.
Al Madinah like other cities of Al Hijaz is of limited water resources where the natural water resources can not fulfill the increased requirements of the inhabitants.
Water Desalination stations at Yanbu, are the main source of fresh water for inhabitants and visitors of the holy places in Al Madinah.
THE HISTORY OF THE MADINAH
Al Madinah Al Munawwarah before the Prophetic Hijrah
Sources and references agree that Al Madinah before the Prophetic emigration was not an integrated urbanized city from either the population structure point of view or architectural point of view. The first inhabitation in the area was by Yathrib Bin Mahlaeil, the Amaliqide, whose pedigree is tracked back to Shem son of Noah, as mentioned by Al Zajahi. The first aggregation was in Adham area as mentioned in Wafa Al Wafa, which the area is known by the name Al Uyun (springs). As this area is a fertile land with abundant water, vegetables and fruits, it became a center of attraction for the emigrants from the neighboring areas. About 455 B.C. some Arabic tribes from the North had emigrated to Al Madinah. Al Madinah was mentioned in the Maeinian inscriptions, books of Ptolemaists and Geography of Byzantines especially the books of Ptolemy as it was also mentioned In the Holy Quran.
It is shown from what have been mentioned in historical sources that Al Madinah before Al Hijrah was a group of small residential communities with no tie, specially after the arrival of the Jewish settlers and their dependence on special communities, their Monopoly of gold trade, building of trade markets, building of forts and residential communities around the forts, as mentioned in the book of "Wafa Al Wafa".
On Monday, 8th Rabia I, corresponding to 20th September of the year 622 A.D. the Messenger arrived at Al Madinah, and people welcomed him with songs.
That was a distinct day in the history of Al Madinah, when the noble Messenger familiarized between the hated hearts and fraternized between Emigrants and supporters, and he built his Mosque, which became the center of the Capital of Islamic State, and the Center of command for the armies of conquest.
Since then, the residential communities changed into an urbanized residential unit. The Mosque was the first unit in the Islamic Urbanization structure; hence, the Holy Prophetic Mosque has become the center of Al Madinah Al Munawarah.
Al Madinah in the First Period of Islam
Epoch of the Noble Messenger and the Orthodox Caliphs (1h-40h)
In 17th Rabbia I of the first year of Al Hijrah, corresponding the year 14 of the blessed prophetic revival, and corresponding to 24th December of the year 622 A.D. the Messenger of Allah,( peace of Allah be upon him ) arrived of Al Madinah with his companion Abu Bakr Al Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him.
Since that history, Al Madinah [Taybah] [Dar Al HijrahJ has become the center of Islamic radiation and the first capital of the Islamic world. Messenger had spent, and during eleven years that the Messenger had spent in Al Madinah before his demise, Islam spread in the Arabian Peninsula, and Allah (the Most High) completed his grace to his noble Messenger with the great conquest of Makkah Al Mukarramah. Then the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, completed his message in the pilgrimage of farewell, and in Arafah Day, Allah (the Most High) said:" Surah Al Ma'idah (3):
[color=#000aa0]The great companions of the emigrants and supporters met and agreed upon choosing Sayyidna Othman Bin Affan, companion of the Messenger, the one who married two of the Messenger's daughter, one of ten who are announced with paradise, the owner of Roumah well, the one that his trade was with Allah (the Most High), and the one who equipped Al Usra Army.
The great companion proceeded the great deeds which were started by Sayyidna Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) and he built the first military marine fleet in the Islamic state with which he invaded Europe in the Mediterranean Sea. Sayyidna Othman transferred Makkah Al Mukarramah seaport from Al Suhaiba to Jeddah.
With the extension of conquests, Sayyidna Othman found that the companions of the Messenger, (Peace of Allah be upon him) had dispersed in the conquest areas, and some of them had martyrized, and he was afraid that the Holy Quran might be lost. Accordingly, he had accomplished he most important and the greatest project, which was the gathering of the verses of Holy Quran that were kept in the hearts of men, the readers of the Messenger, (Peace of Allah be upon him).
The abstinent caliph demised in Zulhijjah of the year 35 H and he was buried in Baqeea of Al Garqad, (May Allah be pleased with him).
After the demise of Sayyidna Othman Bin Afan, Muslims agreed to Make pledge of allegiance to Sayyidna Ali Bin Abu Talib, may Allah honor him, as he is the cousin of the Messenger and the husband of his daughter, who sacrificed himself for the Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him ) in the night of his Hijrah from Makkah to Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, he is one of the first who believed in Mohammed and he was the first young man who believed in Mohammed, (Peace of Allah be upon him), he was one of the swords of Allah that supported the Prophet by the help of Allah, he had never bowed for an idol, he had never seen his genitals, and he is the husband of Fatima Al Zahara, daughter of the Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him ) and the father of Al Hassan and Al Hussain, the supreme of young men paradise people. He became the caliph in l7th of Zulhijjah of the year 35 of Al Hijrah.
Sayyidna Ali, may Allah be pleased with him and horror him, completed the establishment of the bases of the Islamic state. The Islamic scale began to be the subject of conspiracies of the enemies, accordingly, he commanded his armies in the third year of Al Hijrah and left Al Madinah as a fighter for the sake of Allah after he had deputized Sahl Bin Haneef in the year 37H and Abu Ayoub Al Ansari in the year 40H, and he martyrized in the 40 of Al Hijrah.
THE PROPHETIC HOLY MOSQUE
When the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, migrated to Al Madinah, he stayed in Kaaba for some days, then he directed to Al Madinah, and when he entered Al Madinah, he left his she-camel to kneel were Allah wished. Where the she-camel had knelt, the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him. Wanted to build a Mosque on that piece of Land so, he bought an area which was owned by two orphans, Sahl and Suhail, sons of Rafia Bin Umro. He paid ten Dinars for the areas from the money of Abu Bakr Al Sideeq. The site of the Mosque was occupied by Palm trees, ruins and graves, so the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, ordered to transfer the graves, palm trees were cut, and the bases of the Mosque were built to height of one fathom. At the beginning, there was no roof, and then it was roofed by Palm stumps and shaded with Palm branches. After that they smoothed it with mud and they white washed it. Also, they made a court in its center, while the Kiblah Direction was towards Jerusalem, and three doors were opened. When the Kiblah was changed to Al Kaaba, the position of Al Qiblah in the Mosque has changed, and some doors were closed. The area of the Mosque was 1050 Square Meters, as its Length was 35 Meters and its width was 30 meters.
In the year seven of Al Hijrah, after Khaibar, The Prophet Peace of Allah be upon him, in- creased the area from east and west Directions, so the area became 2,500 Square Meters, and the shape became a Square with side Length of 50 Meters.
In the year 29 H, Othman Bin Affan may Allah be pleased with him, increased the area of the Mosque about 5 Meters to the South, 15 Meters to the North and 10 Meters to the East , and the area became 4,200 Square Meters. Omer built the Mosque with Sun-dried bricks, and made its columns of wood.
In the year 29 H, Othman Bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, renewed the building of the Mosque, and he added a riwaq at north, west, and south directions of area 496 square meters. Sayyidna Othman built the Mosque with inscribed stones and plaster, he made the columns of hallow stones and he put iron bars inside the stones and tilled it with brass. He made the roof sink.
In the year 88 H, Al Waleed Bin Malik ordered Omer Bin Abdul Aziz, Emir of Al Madinah, to renew the Mosque. Omer Bin Abdul Aziz, renewed the Mosque and he included the rooms of wives of Messenger Peace of Allah be upon him. He added 2,369 Square Meters at east, west and north, and built it with stones filled with iron and brass, he made the mosaic and marble and he roofed.
In the year 161 H, The Abbaside Al Mahdi increased the area of the Mosque 2,450 Square Meters. He completed his work in 165 H.
Al Mutasim renewed the Mosque when it was burned in the year 655 H. The work completed in the epoch of Al Zahir Baibers the Bandaqdari.
King Al Nasir Mohammed Bin Oalaoun renewed the roof to the east and west of the court, and added two Riwaqs to the south of the court, in the year 705 H and 706 H and 729 H.
In the year 879 H, King Oaiytby achieved an important restoration in the Mosque which included some roofs, columns, and he added 120 Square Meters at southeast direction.
In the night of l3th of Ramadan, 886 H, a thunderbolt hit the big minaret, and it transferred to the roof and destroyed it. Al Ashraf Oaiyt by sent Emir Sungur Al Jamali to Al Madinah in order to restore the Mosque. Sungur Al Jamali brought with him the necessary workers and equipments, and restored the Mosque. They added 1672 Square Meters at the eastern direction. King Qaiytby spent about 60,000 Egyptian Pounds for this restoration.
Sultan Saleem renewed the entire western wall from Al Rahma Gate to the Sulaimanic Minaret in the year 974 H, as indicated from the engraving at the inside face of the wall near Al Rahma Gate. He also built the Sulaimanic Mihrab in 938 H and the Prophetic Mihrab, as indicated from the shape of the later.
In the year 980, Sultan Saleem II restored the Mosque and built Mihrab to the west of the Prophetic Mihrab at the edge of the original Mosque towards Al Kiblah direction.
In the year 1265 H, Sultan Abdul Majeed Bin Murad, the Ottoman, ordered to restore the Mosque completely except the cabinet and some walls of tight bases. Old columns were replaced with better ones, northern and eastern riwaq were enlarged and made two instead of three, and the western riwaqs were made three instead of four. After that, two riwaqs were added at the Kiblah direction next to the courtyard of the Mosque. Some other items were added, and restoration completed in 1277 H in twelve years. Total cost was 750,000 Majeedi Ponds. The total area of the Mosque became four acres (12,600 Square Meters).
In the year 980, Sultan Saleem II restored the Mosque and built a second mihrab to the west of the original.
In the year 1265 the sultan Adul Majeed bin Murad ordered the restoration of the complete mosque as well as adding extra features.
In the year, 1336 H, Fakhri Basha repaired the Prophetic and Sulaimanic Mihrabs.
On Friday 11th Ramadan, 1370 H corresponding to l5TH June, 1950 A.D. King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman A1 Saud issued an order to accomplish a complete restoration to the Prophetic Holy Mosque and to expand it. Execution started in l0th July, 1951. Houses surrounding the Mosque were purchased for 115,000 Golden Ponds and removed. Foundation stone was laid in Rabia I, 1372 H, corresponding to November, 1952 A. D. work was completed in 6th Rabia I, 1375, corresponding to 22 TH October, 1955 A.D. Expenses were Fifty Millions of Saudi Riyals. The total area of the Mosque is 16327 Square Meters, 4056 Square Meters of it is an old Ottomanic building, and12271 Square Meters is a Modern Saudi Building.
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahad Bin Abdul Aziz ordered to expand the Prophetic Hoty Mosques, and the work is continuing until now.
HE King Fahd's Expansion
of the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah
he expansion and development plans formulated by King Fahd for the Prophet's Mosque in the Holy City of Madinah were as ambitious as those for the Holy Mosque in Makkah.
Work on the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah was launched by King Fahd in 1985 (1405/06 AH) and the Mosque can now accommodate in excess of one million worshippers at the busiest times.
A unique feature of the expansion project was the development of the 27 main plazas. Each plaza is now capped by a state-of-the-art sliding dome, which can be rapidly opened or closed according to the weather and can be used in unison or separately as required. Elaborately carved stone friezes decorate the domes, and the plazas have been paved in decorative geometrically patterned marble tiles. The project also necessitated the building of six additional minarets, each 105-meter construction crowned with a 4 ton gold-plated crescent.
The development of the surrounding open areas and the seven newly constructed entrances ensure the smooth passage of pilgrims into the Prophet's Mosque. Indeed, the designers of the entire project have masterfully considered every eventuality of the existing and future capacity of the Mosque, and all this within the constraints of the existing architectural pattern. The building extensions have therefore been fitted out with a suitable number of staircases and escalators. The designers have added an extension to the roof area for praying purposes, whilst also allowing for the possibility of adding another floor to accommodate worshippers in the future.
Like the splendidly redeveloped Holy Mosque in the Holy City of Makkah, the Prophet's Mosque is now fully air-conditioned. The comfort of worshippers has been further enhanced, however, by the unique and ingeniously conceived shading system. Twelve enormous mechanically operated Teflon umbrellas, six in each court of the Mosque, have been developed by King Fahd's architects to protect pilgrims and help them withstand the high temperatures.
The Prophet's Mosque project also includes provision of extensive car parking facilities and the construction of a new dual carriageway, the Bab Al-salam Road, linking Madinat-Al-hujjaj on the western side of the Holy City of Madinah to the site of the Mosque. A labyrinth of service tunnels, drainage systems and supply networks also now criss-crosses the area. In fact, the magnitude of support services made it necessary to construct a vast basement complex in which to accommodate the service equipment and wiring needs, as well as various other maintenance works.
The reconstructed main gate leading into the Mosque site, the new King Fahad entrance, is situated on the northern side, and is topped with a profusion of domes and minarets on both sides. The exquisite decorations and architectural touches here and elsewhere are in complete harmony with earlier building work on the site, and they feature wonderfully crafted golden grilles, cornices, pillars, brass doors and marble works, as well as special ornately carved pigeon holes for the Holy Quran.
JANNATUL BAQEE (BAQEEA AL GARQAD)
Baqeea' Al Garqad, or Al Baqeea, is the cemetery of Al Madinah since the epoch of the Messenger,Peace of Allah be upon him and it is mentioned in the Seerah that the first people who will be resurrected, are Al Baqeea people.
It is preferred to visit Al Baqeea and invoked to Allah for the Companions, the honored wives of the Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him), and the kind followers. This visit is an imitation to what the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, did.
The graveyard of Madinah, has a large number of Al Sahabah Al Kiram (companions of the Prophet) including Usman, Abbas, Hassan (the grandson of the Prophet), and wives and daughters of the Holy Prophet are buried. This graveyard is close to the tomb of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), right after the courtyard of Masjid-e-Nabawi.
Umar bin Jubair describes Al-Baqi as he saw it during his travel to Madina, saying "Al-Baqi is situated to the east of Madina. You enter it through the gate known as the gate of Al-Baqi. As you enter, the first grave you see on your left is that of Safiya, the Prophet's aunt, and further still is the grave of Malik bin Anas, the Imam of Madina. On his grave is raised a small dome.
In front of it is the grave of Ibrahim son of our Prophet (s) with a white dome over it, and next to it on the right is the grave of Abdul-Rahman son of Umar bin Al-Khattab, popularly known as Abu Shahma, whose father had kept punishing him till death overtook him. Facing it are the graves of Aqeel bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Ja'far Al-Tayyar. There, facing those graves is a small shrine containing the graves of the Prophet's wives, following by a shrine of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib.
The grave of Hadhrat Hasan Bin Ali (RZ), situated near the gate to its right hand, has an elevated dome over it. His head lies at the feet of Hadhrat Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, and both graves are raised high above the ground; their walls are paneled with yellow plates and studded with beautiful star-shaped nails. This is how the grave of Ibrahim, son of the Prophet Sallahu Sallam has also been adorned.
Behind the shrine of Abbas there is the house attributed to Fatima, daughter of our Prophet (s), known as "Bayt Al-Ahzaan" (the house of grief) because it is the house she used to frequent in order to mourn the death of her father, the chosen one, peace be upon him. At the farthest end of Al-Baqi is the grave of the caliph Uthman, with a small dome over it, and there, next to it, is the grave of Fatima Bint Asad, mother of Ali b. Abi Talib (RZ)"
The honored wives of the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, were buried there at Al Baqeea except Al Sayeeda Khadeejah, may Allah be pleased with her, who was buried at Makkah Al Mukarramah in Al Maalah cemetery before his Hijrah, Peace of Allah be upon him, to Al Madinah Also, Al Saidha Maymounah, may Allah be please with her, is buried at Makkah.
The orthodox caliph, Othman Bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, is buried in Al Baqeea some reports mentioned that more than then thousand Companion are buried in Al Baqeea.
Over the centuries, Al-Baqi remained a sacred site with renovations being carried out.
SOME COMPANIONS WHO ARE BURIED IN AL BAQEE
Grave of Al Abbas, uncle of the Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him).
Al Hassan Bin Ali, May Allah be pleased with him and. mother of Al Hassan Bin Ali, Fatimah ( May Allah be Pleased with her ) With Al Hassan Bin Ali, ( May Allah be pleased with him ) is his nephew Ali Zain Alabideen and his son Jaafar Al Saddiq, may Allah be please with them. Grave of Aqeel Bin Abi Talib and with him is his nephew Abdullah Bin Jaafar, may Allah be pleased with them.
Grave of Ibraheem, son of the Prophet, Peace of Allah be upon him.
Grave of Othman Bin Mazaun, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the first emigrant buried in Al Baqeea.
Grave of Abdul Rahman Bin Auf, May Allah be pleased with him, who promised Othman Bin Mazaun to be buried near him.
Graves of the wives of the Messenger of Allah, Peace of Allah be upon him except Khadeejah and Maymoanah, may Allah be pleased with them.Grave of Othman Bin Afan, may Allah be pleased with him, who is buried at the end of the first Baqeea, which was known by the name "Jish Kowkab".
Grave of Fattimah Bint Asad, mother of Ali Bin Abi Talib, may Allah honor him.
Grave of Safiyah Bint Abdul Motalib, May Allah be pleased with her, aunt of the messenger Peace of Allah be upon him.
Grave of Malik, the Imam of Al Madinah, may Allah forgive him.
Grave of sheikh Nafia, teacher of Imam Malik, may Allah forgive them.
Grave of Ismaeel Bin Jaffar Al Sadiq, may Allah forgive him.
Ziyarah around Madinah
Numerous Mosques (Quiblatain, Fath, Salman etc.) and the battle grounds of Ohad and Khandaq, as well as the garden of Fadak.
Masjid-e-Qiblatayn. On Monday 15th Rajab 2 AH, while the Holy Prophet (saw) was praying Dhuhr on this site, he was directed by Jibrail Alaihissalaam, to turn from Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) and to face the Holy Kaaba. The Holy Prophet (saw) turned to face the new Qiblah without hesitation. The old and new Qiblahs can still be seen today in Masjid-e-Qiblatain. It was a miracle that one of the Holy Prophet (saw) turned exactly to face the Holy Kaaba without the use of any scientific instrument or computation.
The road to Madinah passes through Great Plains of basalt: the harra wastelands which provide dramatic reminders of the region's volcanic past. Several eruptions are recorded by the Muslim historians, the most fearsome taking place in 1257, when a volcano poured out fast-moving orange streams of lava, which were only deflected to pass to the east of the city by the fervent prayers of its inhabitants.
Desiccated by the merciless desert air, these seas of fire have dried to form black basalt plains which stretch beyond the horizon. They are Allah's defense of the city, whose glassy sharpness kept at bay the idolatrous invaders of Quraysh, forcing them to confront the believers at their only point of access, at the Battle of the Trench. The desolation of this landscape of flat blackness, interrupted by dry sarha bushes, and, far away, the shapely profile of extinct volcanoes, gives the impact of arrival an extraordinary dramatic power.
The proximity of the City, on the motorway inevitably dubbed the Hijra Highway, is first announced by the slip-road to Abyar Ali, the Wells of Ali. These are sweet water sources much frequented by pilgrims, eager to benefit from the medicinal properties of these deep, cold wells once owned by the Blessed Prophet's son-in-law.
Ten minutes drive, and Quba is reached. Here, the black barrenness of the harrat suddenly gives way to a verdant sea of green. Alfalfa, watermelons, cucumber and tomatoes grow here, between fruit trees and the ancient symbol of Madina, the date palm itself. In this prosperous suburb, now a place of coffee-shops and small parks can still be found the Zarqa wells from which the Blessed Prophet drank when first he reached the City, and which are the secret of the land's fertility.
Despite the sense of peace, few linger here. The pull of the Haram, the Sanctuary, is everywhere, and as the sun lowers in the west the pilgrims have thoughts only for the Prophet's Mosque. At this time, there is only one destination for visitors and city-dwellers alike. Today, it would be possible to switch off the traffic lights. For now in the late afternoon, every road has become a one-way street, pulling the visitor towards the cool, radiant heart of the city.
The mosque at Quba, the first place of worship founded in Islam, is impressive but sober. The 1986 reconstruction retains the familiar features of Madanese architecture, which are ribbed white domes, and basalt facing over a modest exterior that recalls Madina's primordial simplicity. The courtyard, screened overhead by day from the scorching heat, is flagged with black, red and white marble. Calligraphy by great Turkish masters soars overhead, proclaiming the uniqueness of this place. Arabesque latticework filters the light of the palm groves outside. Doves coo in the window-niches.
When Imam Ali [a] married the Prophet's daughter Sayyida az-Zahra [RZ], they first lived in a house on this open ground facing the mihrab of Masjid Quba (that can be seen behind). Their house was near the palm tree. Next to their house was the house of the Prophet's companion Hudhaifa Al-Yamani. The Saudi government has unfortunately demolished both the houses and leveled the ground.
Importance of Madinah Al-Munawara
Unique Merit of the Prophet's Mosque. The Prophet Muhammad himself participated in the construction of this mosque, called it "My Mosque" and led prayers in it for years. It is a great privilege for the pilgrims to visit our beloved Prophet's tomb. The Holy Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said:
"A salaah performed in the Prophet's Mosque is better than a thousand salaats in any other place except Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah" - Bukhari and Muslim.
"The person, who offers 40 prayers consecutively in my Mosque, without missing a prayer in between, will secure immunity from the fire of Hell and other torments and also from hypocrisy." - reported by Hadhrat Anas
"The person, who comes solely for the purpose of paying a visit to my grave, has a right on me that I should intercede for him." - From Ilm Al-Fiqh, Vol. V "The person, who performs Hajj and then visits my Tomb, will be regarded as though he had seen me in my worldly life." - Baihaqi
The final pages of the part entitled "Twin apples of the eyes of Muslims" in the Turkish book Ashab-i Kiram, give detailed information indicating that after making the Hajj it is necessary to go to Madinah-e-Munawwara and visit the Prophet's blessed grave. The Hujra-i-saada (the Prophet's grave), being close to the east corner of the qibla wall of Masjid ash-Sharif, remains on the left side of a person who stands towards the qibla in the mihrab. And the Minbar remains on his right. The area between the Hujra-i-saada and the minbar is called Rawda-i-mutahhara. The Hujra-i-saada is enclosed by two walls, one within the other. There is a hole in the middle of the ceiling of the inner wall. The outer wall reaching up to the ceiling of Masjid, its green dome can be seen from long distances. The outer walls and the high grating outside are screened with curtains called Sattara. No one can go inside the walls, for they have no doors.
On the 384th page of the book Mirat-i-Madinah it is written that when Masjid as-saadat was first constructed, its width was 60 dhra' [25 meters], and its length 70 dhra' [29 meters]. Two months before the Battle of Badr, i.e. in the month of Rajab of the second year, after the heavenly order to change the qibla direction towards the Kaba was revealed, its door was moved from the north wall to the south wall, and the masjid's length and width were extended to a hundred dhra' [42 meters] each. This door is named Bab-ut-tawassul. During the restoration period of Walid bin Abdulmalik and the Abbasi Caliph Mahdi in 165 , the masjid's length became 126 meters and its width 76 meters. Saudis extended it in 1375  and its length became 128 meters and its width 91 meters.
Masjid an-Nabi now has five doors. Two of them are on the west wall; the one near the qibla is called Babussalam, and the one near the north corner is called Babur-rahma. The east wall has no door on the qibla side. The east wall has the Bab Jibril, which is opposite the Babur-rahma. Bilgiler. It is written in Durr-ul-mukhtar, "The fardh Hajj must be made before visiting Madinah. It is also permissible to visit Madinah first. While making the supererogatory Hajj you go to the city which is on your way first. When entering Madinah you must intend only to visit the Prophet's 'alaihis-salam' grave. One prayer of salat in Masjid an-Nabi is superior to a thousand prayers of salat at other places. So is the case with such kinds of worship as fasting, alms, dhikr, and reading the Quran. You do not wear the ihram when you enter Madinah. The prohibitions that are valid as you wear the ihram in Makkah are not valid in Madinah.
Places to Visit in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
It is Mustahabb to visit the dwellers of Baqi in Madinah, and to visit other sacred places and the mosques and wells of the Prophet Muhammad
Jannat-ul-Baqi is the graveyard lying in the east of Madinah. Innumerable companions of the Prophet Muhammad and saints are buried there. It is mustahabb to visit the dwellers of Baqi especially on Fridays.
The plain of Badar is 20 miles south west of Madinah where the first battle between 313 Muslims and 1000 Qureish of Makkah took place in 624 A.D. The Muslims had seventy camels and two horses whereas the Qureish had a cavalry of 200 Horses and 700 camels. They were superior in weapons too, but Muslims were victorious because they were strong in morale and strategy due to the leadership of the Holy Prophet.
Martyrs of Uhad
Three miles to the north of Madinah is the mountain about which the Mesenger of Allah said "Uhad is a mountain that loves us and we love it." The "Ghazwah Uhud" (war) took place here in the year 3 A.H. it is mustahabb to visit martyrs of Uhud, the mountain itself and its mosques on Thursday after the Fajr prayers. The grave of Hadhrat Hamzah lies here, where one should offer salam.
The grave of Hadhrat Hamzah (R.A)
Historical Sites & Mosques in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
There are many other mosques in and around Madinah apart from Masjid Nabawi. The Prophet Muhammad and his Companions prayed in these mosques. It is mustahabb to visit these mosques, some of which still exist.
It is about two miles south-west from Masjid-an Nabawi. This is the very first mosque of the muslims. The Prophet Muhammad and his companions built it with their own hands. This is the first mosque in the history of Islam whose foundation stone was laid down by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself on his migration to Madinah. To offer 2 rakaats of nafl in it is equal to one Umrah.
It is near Bustan Al Jaza in the valley Zanuna to the east on the new road to Quba. This mosque was built at a place where the Prophet offered his first Jumaa prayer in Madinah.
It is situated to the north-west near the valley Aqiq. In this mosque, Allah SWT directed Prophet Muhammad, who was in the middle of a salaat along with "sahaba karam", to turn his face from Islam's first qibla, "Bait-ul-Muqqadis", (Masjid Alaqs in Jerusalem) to "Ka'ba" in "Masjid Al-Haram" in Makka. Consequently, this mosque is known as a mosque with two qiblas.
Masjid Musallah / Masjid Ghumana
This mosque is not far from Masjid-e-Nabawi. The Prophet used to offer his Eidain prayers here. Once the Prophet led Istasqa prayer in it and suddenly the clouds appeared and it started raining, hence the name ghamama (clouds).
There is a dome inside a railway station near Bab 'Anbariyah. It is known as Qubbah Ra'us. On his way to Ghazwah Badr, the Messenger of Allah offered his prayers there.
Masjid Ahzab / Masjid Fath
It is on the western corner of Jabl Sala'. When the unbelievers had united together in the Ghazwah Ahzab and attacked Madinah and the trench was dug, the Messenger of Allah made a supplication for three days. Allah granted the prayer and the muslims emerged victorious.
As one gets down Thaniah Al-Wada' on the road to Jabl Uhad the Jabal Zubab is on the left side. That's where the mosque is located. The Prophet prayed there too.
Masjid Al Fadih
It is situated on the east of Awali. The Messenger of Allah had offered his prayers here at the time of siege of Bani Nadir. Fadih is the wine from dates. The mosque takes its name from an incident involving Sayyidina Ayyub Ansari and his companions while they were drinking wine. It was here that the verse disallowing intoxicants was revealed.
Masjid Bani Qurayzah
It is a little distance from Masjid Fadih to the east. The Messenger of Allah had camped here during during the siege of the Bani Qurayzah.
Masjid Bani Bami Zafar / Masjid Baghalah
It is on the boundary of Harrah Waqim to the east of Baqi. The Banu Zafar used to live there. A stone near the mosque bears the mark of the hoof of the mare of the Prophet.
It is to the north of Baqi near Bustan Saman. The Prophet Muhammad prayed there.
Masjid Sajadah / Masjid Al-Buhayr
It is between Bustan Buhayri and Bastin Sadaqah. The Prophet Muhammad had offered two rakaat here and observed a long prostration.
It is next to Baqi. The Prophet Muhammad visited the mosque frequently.
Masjid Bani Haram
It is on the way to Masjid Fath in the valley of Jabl Sala' on the right side. The Prophet Muhammad offered prayers here too. There is a cave nearby where he had received a revelation.
Masjid Abu Bakr
Near the Masjid Musalla towards the north.
Also near Masjid Musalla.
Masjid Umm Ibrahim bin Muhammad
It is situated in Awali to the north of Masjid Bani Qurayz. Sayyidina Ibrahim was born there. The Prophet Muhammad prayed here as well.
The plain of Badar is 32 kilometers southwest of Madinah where the first battle between 313 Muslims and 1000 Qureish of Makkah took place in 624 A.D. The Muslims had 70 camels and two horses whereas the Quraish had a cavalry of 200 horses and 700 camels. They were superior in weapons too, but Muslims were victorious because they were strong in morale and strategy due to the leadership of the Holy Prophet.
Mountains in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
There are several Mountains. Pilgrims must visit some of the more famous ones.
About 4 miles or 7 kms on the north of Madinah, famous battle of Uhad was fought at 3 A.H. Hadhrat Hamza, the Holy Prophet's uncle and other companions are buried here.
This is the site for the battle of Ditch which was fought in 5 A.H. Now there are six mosques at this place.
Wells in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
There are several wells from which the Prophet drank or performed ablution. Pilgrims must visit some of the more famous ones.
Bi' Urays - To the west of Masjid Quba.
Bi' Ghars - Situated in the village Qurban about four furlongs from Masjid Quba to the north east.
Bi' Buda'ah - In Jamal Al-layl next to the Syrian door.
Bi' Bussah - Next to Baqi on the road to Quba.
Bi' Ha' - It is opposite Bab Majidi outside the north wall of the city.
Bi' Ahan - It is in Awali to the east of Masjid Quba near Masjid Shams.
Bi' Rumah - About three miles away from Madinah in a desert at the edge of the valley Aqiq to the north-west of Madinah.
WALL AND AHWASH OF AL MADINAH AL MUNAWARAH
Since the arrival of the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, and building of this Holy Mosques, the Mosque became the core of the center of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, the capital of Islam, and Houses were built around the Mosques, hence, the Mosques formed the main architectural body which was penetrated, as Ibraheem Rifaat Basha says in his book "The Mirror of the Two Holy Mosques ". Some tortuous streets and lanes which separating the alleys.
In 263H-876 A.D - Mohammed Bin Isaak Al Jaadi built a wall around Al Madinah to prevent it from attacks of Arabs and raids of Bedouins which had terrorized the residents of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah. The wall was built of sun dried bricks, and there were four gates in the wall:
At East - To Baqeea of Al Garqad.
At west - To Al Aqeeq and kaaba.
At North direction and the last one is at the North West direction.
The important gates of these are the Egyptian gate the Syrian gate, Al Khoumah gate, and Al Baqeea gate. The most famous districts which were inside the old wall were Al Agwat district, Hussein filiation district, Al Shamiah, Al Souq Al Kabeer, the area of Zuqaq Al Tayar and the area of Al Sahah street. The old city had a special architectural pattern.
Between 367 and 372 of Al Hijrah corresponding to 978 to 983 A.D. Adad Al Doulah Bin Buaih renewed the old destructed wall and rebuilt it again with black basalt stones, and that was to protect the city from being captured by the Fatimids.
In the year 540H-1145 A.D - The wall was rebuilt by Jamal Al Dein Mohammed Bin Abi Mansour, which had led to prevention of migration to Al Madinah.
The migrants to Al Madinah constructed small residential communities on the exterior side of the wall, and they surrounded their communities with walls called Al Ahwash. That Ahwash were a singular architectural entity and a strong family structure. There was a central market which was known by the name "Al Manakh", outside the wall.
In The Year 558 H-1162 A.d. Nour Al Dein Bin Zinkiyah Constructed A Second New Wall Which Surrounded The Old Wall And The Residential Communities That Were Outside The Old Wall At The Western And West Southern Direction, And He Made For It Some Gates Facing The Old Gates Such As, Al Anbariyah (Al Rasheedi) Gate Which Is Facing The Egyptian Gate. Also He Constructed A Gate Called Oubaa Gate.
In the period form 724 to 743 H Hisham Bin Abdul Malik constructed buildings, at Al Manakh market where he made shops and commercial stores in the ground floor, while the first floor and the other floors were used for dwelling. That, as Doctor Salih Limia Mustafa in the book of "Al Madinah Al Munawarah" was the first attempt to obtain a relationship between the residential and commercial areas. There were some commercial activities in the main streets between the gates and the Mosque.
AL AHWASH (or walled gardens of orchards)
Buildings of Al Madinah Al Munawarah which were located between the two walls were specialized with a different architectural pattern, and not as the buildings inside the old wall such as Al Agwat district. In Al Ahwash there were wide streets of 6 to 8 meters in width Al Ahwash, which were walls around a group of buildings, included 30 to 40 families. These ahwash were, for example, Haush Abu Sharshah, Haush Manaa, Haush Abu Jamab, Haush Al Sultan, Housh Abu-draa, Haush Al Magariba, Haush Umairah.
AL AQEEQ VALLEY
Al Aqeeq is a Place at the Western side of Al Madinah Al Munawarah where the Western Stony area ends there. The valley begins at the South from Beni Salem stony area, 220 Kilometers from Al Madinah Al Aqeeq valley ends at Al Gabah, about 28 Kilometers North of Al Madinah, where their is a big Dam now after Al Khaleel Many valleys discharge in Al Aqeeq valley during its Passage towards Al Madinah, as there are many Mountains and hills in this passage. Tuba, king of Yemen, called Al Aqeeq when he saw that the valley splits the stony area. Al Aqeeq means the splitter.
THE TWO VACANT LOTS OF AL MADINAH (ARSSA)
There are two vacant lots in Al Aqeeq valley, which are known. Since early times, these two vacant lots are:
The Minor Vacant lot, at the bottom of Al Jama and extends to castle of Saeed Bin Al Aas, which is inside the Royal Palace now, In the Minor vacant lot we find the Islamic University, Royal Paiace, Sheraton Hotel, Central King Fahad Hospital, Pilgrims city, and King Abdul Aziz University to the West.
The Prophet, Peace of Allah be upon him, had given most of the vacant lot to Bilal Bin Al Harith Al Maziny, and most of the Companions and their sons had bought from him. There are five modern bridges that crossing above Al Aqeeq, these are:
Bridge above the Major junction of floods, to the West of Uhod Mountain.
Bridge of Tabouk International Road.
Bridge of Royal Palace.
Bridge of the Islamic University
Bridge of Urwah well.
ARCHEOLOGICAL PALACES AT AL AQEEQ
There are many houses, castles, Palaces, and forms in Al Aqeeq valley since the epoch of companions. At the Southeast there are Abu Hurairahs farm in Al Jathjathah plain, to the North there is the palace of Urwah Bin Al Zubair, May Allah be pleased with him, and the ruins of that Palace are still there to the East of Urwah well and the Mosque of the Two minarets. To the North there are Palaces of Ommiads such as the Palace of Al Marajil to the North of Jeddah Makkah Road. To the North of that Palace there is the Palace of Sakeenah Bint Al Hussain May Allah be pleased with her and her mother Al Rabab Bint Umroa Al Oais Al Kalbiah, then palace of Anbasah Bin Umroa Bin Othman May Allah be Pleased with him, and this Place is known by the name Al Anabis until today, which is the site of the Palace, farms and house of Anbasah and his descendants, then comes the Palaces of the Major vacant lot around Roumah well (Othman Well).
The remaining ruins of the Palaces and Farms which were in the villages of Al Aqeeq and Known today are the ruins of the Palaces of Saeed Bin Al Aas, and a short distance to the South there are Palaces of Mohammed bin Umro Bin Othman May Allah be Pleased with him, and to the North of that there are the Palace of his uncle Aasim, then the Palace of his brother Anbasah, then the Palace of Abdullah Bin Abu Bakr, Bin Umro Bin Othman may Allah be pleased with him.
Manners & Rituals when visiting Madinah
Travel to Madinah and Niyyah. When you start traveling to Madinah, make niyyah (intention) as such: "O Allah! I start journey to visit the holy tomb of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Please accept it from me." Masjid-e-Nabawi. After reaching your place of residence, take a bath or perform ablutions (vudu), wear nice dress, apply perfume and proceed towards the Prophet's Mosque while uttering Quaranic verses. Bab-e-Jibril. Enter the mosque through Bab-e-Jibril or Bab-us-Salaam or if this is not possible, enter through any other door. Right Foot. Place your right foot first in the entrance, praise Allah (such as say Allhu Akbar, Subhan Allah, Alhamdu Lillah, etc.), and say: "Allah humma aftah li abwabe rahamte ka"
Two Rakat Nafl. It is customary to offer two rakahs of nafl tahiyyat Al-masjid (greeting of the masjid) preferably in Riaz Al-Jannah near the tomb of the Prophet or otherwise anywhere else in the mosque.
In front of the Holy Tomb. Then go to the grave of the Prophet (peace be upon him), and standing in front of it and facing it, say in a respectful and hushed voice: "Assalamu alaika, ayyuhan-nabiyya wa rahmatul-lahi wa barakatuhu" (Peace be on you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.) After this say: "Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Rasul-Allah. Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Nabi-yallah." "Assalatu was-salamu alaika ya Habib-Allah." Then supplicate to Allah for good things in this life and the life after death. You may use the same supplication recited earlier during the Tawaf : "Rabbana atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina azabin nar."
Offer Salam of others. Now offer salam of relatives or friends in your own language or say: "Asslamu alaika ya Rasul Allah min----." After the word "min", add the name of your friend or relative.
Salam on Abu Bakr Siddique, the first Caliph. Then move a little to the right and stand before the grave of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Greet him and supplicate to bestow His mercy and forgiveness on him.
Salam on Umar Al Farooq, the second Caliph. Again move a little to the right before the grave of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), and greet him and make supplication for him. (10) Forty Prayers. Men should offer forty prayers (Salat) in the Prophet's Mosque, but it is not a requirement of any kind. It is only Mustahab, i.e., rewarding if done, but if not done there is no sin.
Other places to visit. Other important places to visit are: Masjid Quba, Jannat Al-Baqee, graves of Hamzah, the uncle of the prophet, and other martyrs of Uhud (may Allah be pleased with them).
Departure from Madinah. When you have to leave Madinah, offer your Salaam again to the Prophet (peace be upon him), cry at this separation, supplicate to Allah and leave with the earnest desire to come back.